With 28 million people in the metropolitan area, nearly 10 million vehicles in daily use, and limited rapid transit system Jakarta is strained by transportation problems. The city suffers a lack of urban public transport services due to prioritized development of road networks, which were mostly designed to accommodate private vehicles.
Most trips, however, are undertaken by non-motorized transportation (particularly walking) and numerous modes of public or demand-responsive transportation services.
Long-distance railways and local tram services were first introduced during the Dutch colonial era. While the trams were replaced with buses in the post-colonial era, long distance railways continued to connect the city to its neighbouring regions as well as cities throughout Java. The surrounding cities of Jakarta are served by KRL Jabodetabek, a commuter rail system which serves commuters both in and around Jakarta. The major rail stations are Gambir, Jakarta Kota, Jatinegara, Pasar Senen, Manggarai, and Tanah Abang. During rush hours, the number of passengers greatly exceeds the system’s capacity, and crowding is common.
Soekarno-Hatta International Airport (CGK) is the main airport serving the Greater Jakarta area. The airport is named after the first President of Indonesia, Soekarno, and the first vice-president, Mohammad Hatta. The airport is often called Cengkareng airport or Soetta by Indonesians. The airport’s IATA code, CGK, originates from the name of the Cengkareng locality, Tangerang, Banten, although the location of this airport is located outside of the city, it is used as a gate out by the Jakartans and citizen of the surrounding areas, therefore at the main gate of the airport, there is an inscription “Jakarta Airports”. Soekarno-Hatta International Airport is the 18th busiest airport in the world, serving 12,314,667 passengers, according to Airports Council International. Today the airport is running over capacity. After T3 Soekarno-Hatta Airport expansion will be finished in May 2016, the total capacity of three terminals become 43 million passengers a year. T1 and T2 also will be revitalized, so all the three terminals finally will accommodate 67 million passengers a year.
A second airport, Halim Perdana Kusuma Airport (HLP) serves domestic flight of low cost airline, private and VIP/presidential flights. Other airports in the Jakarta metropolitan area include Pondok Cabe Airport and an airfield on Pulau Panjang, part of the Thousand Island archiopelago (Kepulauan Seribu).
PUBLIC ROAD TRANSPORT
The Kopaja and Metromini economy minibus systems also provide important services for Jakarta commuters with numerous routes throughout the city. Since January 2013, Jakarta Government allow some Kopaja AC bus to enter TransJakarta bus lanes. For the future, Metromini AC bus it is also possible to enter TransJakarta bus lanes to enhance integrated bus rapid transit system.
In 1966, an estimated 160 thousand pedicabs (becak) operated in the city; as much as 15% of Jakarta’s total workforce was engaged in becak driving. In 1971, becak were banned from major roads, and shortly thereafter the government attempted a total ban, which substantially reduced their numbers but did not eliminate them. A campaign to eliminate them succeeded in 1990 and 1991, but during the economic crisis of 1998, some returned amid less effective government attempts to control them.
“Auto rickshaws”, called bajaj, provide local transportation in the back streets of some parts of the city. From the early 1940s to 1991 they were a common form of local transportation in the city.
Although ojeks are not an official form of public transport, they can be found throughout Indonesia and in Jakarta. They are especially useful when navigating crowded urban roads, narrow alleyways, heavy traffic and cramped locations that larger vehicles cannot reach.
Bus rapid transit
The TransJakarta bus rapid transit service (known as Busway) was developed in the context of development reforms (or reformasi) and used Bogota’s TransMilenio system as a model. Jakarta’s first busway line, from Blok M to Jakarta Kota opened in January 2004 and as of 14 February 2013, twelve out of fifteen corridors are in use. TransJakarta has the world’s longest bus rapid transit routes (172 km in length) and has more than 669 buses in operation.
Electrified rail system
KRL Jabodetabek or commonly known as Commuterline is a commuter rail system which serves commuters in Jakarta, Bogor, Depok, Tangerang, South Tangerang and Bekasi. The commuter system was started in 2000. The number of passengers in 2014 reached 208 million, rising from 158 million in the previous year. KRL Jabotabek serves all municipalities in Jakarta excluding the Thousand Island, as well as all neighboring cities and regencies. Currently KRL Jabotabek is the only rail-based transit system in Jakarta, as the mass rapid transit and light rail transit are still under construction.